大清國致大英國國書 1905

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大清光绪年间给英格兰的信 Diplomatic Credential Presented by the Great Qing Empire to the Great British Empire




1 amba daiqing gurun i

2 amba hvwangdi ginguleme fonjime

3 amba yeng gurun i

4 amba hvwangdi de sain , dulimbai gurun

5 wesihun gurun i sasa aqanaha aniya goidame ofi

6 guquleme falire de ele hajilambi , an i donjiqi

7 qoohai nashvn i bade , xu genggiyen goidafi iletuleme

8 dasan i baita ulhiyen i iqemleme , yaya iqihiyame gamarangge

9 yooni saikan sain de isinafi , bi erin i arbun be

10 kemuni gvnime yendebume mukdembure be hvsutuleme kiqefi

11 gosin be hajilame , adaki gurun be aqanara doro be

12 gvninjafi , kimqime tuwame ishunde temgetulere tusa

13 daiselaha qoohai jurgan i hashv ergi ashan i amban sioi xi qang

14 arambi , te qohome gurun be dalire gung zai je be

15 hvdai jorgon i iqe ergi aliha hafan xooying

16 tuqibufi

17 wesihun gurun de julesi geneme , dasan i baita be

18 yargiyalame sibkimbi harangga ambasai erin i baita be

19 mujilen de sibkime erdemu ferkingge getuken hafu

20 ojoro be dahame , bi inenggi goidafi akdaqi ombi ,

21 qohotoi gurun i bithe be gungneme jasifi funde

22 alibume bi gvnin de damu

23 amba hvwangdi unenggi be badarambume jiramin be

24 tuwara de erehunjerengge , eiten sain kooli mergen

25 gvnin be elehun i gamafi yergiyalame sibkime sonjome

26 kimqire selgiyeme yabure de belhebuki

27 amba hvwangdi adaki gurun i saixame gosire de i

28 jurgan be yargiyan i hukxembi .



31 amba daiqing gurun i badarangga doro i gvsin emuqi aniya jakvn biyai iqe uyun[2] [3]


adaki: 1. neighbor 2. neighboring, adjacent - 邻;欲陪

akdambi: to depend on, to trust, to believe - 信赖, 依靠 → see akdan

akdan: trust - 信赖, 依靠

alibumbi: (causative of alimbi); to present (a document to a superior), to offer

aliha hafan: 正卿; Director; cf. BH 933, 934

amba: big, great, vast, important - 大

amban: 1. high official, minister 2. subject, vassal 3. your servant (used by officials when addressing the Emperor) 4. amba - 臣; 大

an: 1. usual, ordinary, common 2. order, discipline - 通常,平庸,恒久

aniya: year - 年

aqambi: 1. to meet, to get together, to come together, to combine 2. to visit (the home of the deceased after a funeral) 3. to be in agreement, to be in harmony, to be on friendly terms, to make up after a quarrel 4. to engage in sexual intercourse, to copulate, to mate 5. to correspond to, to match, to fit, to be equal to 6. to be fitting, to be appropriate 7. (after the conditional converb) should, ought, must - 和好, 会见; -ci aqambi 应当

arambi: 1. to do, to make 2. to write 3. to feign, to pretend 4. to celebrate 5. to appoint to a vacant post temporarily 6. to recognize as an adopted relation 7. to serve as, to act as, to use as - 制作; 书写; 结亲

arbun: 1. form, shape, image, appearance 2. situation, circumstances 3. scene, scenery - 状态,形状

ashan: 1. side 2. appendage 3. peripheral, subordinate - 旁边,副

badarangga doro: the Guangxu (光緒) reign period, 1875--1908 - 光绪

bade: postposition; even in the case that, if even …

baita: matter, affair, business, event -  事,事务,案

be: we (exclusive); accusative particle; (伯) count, earl (the title); a wooden crossbar in front of a wagon shaft; food for birds, bird feed, chicken feed - 1. 语法. 宾语 2. 我们

be dahame:

belhembi: to prepare - 预备,备

bi: I, me; there is, there are, has, have - 我 → see bimbi

bimbi: imperfect participle bisire, imperative: bisire; to exist, to be, to be alive; to stay, to remain - 有,存在

bithe: book; letter; written symbol; civil (as opposed to military) - 书, 书札, 文

biya: moon, month - 月亮,月份

biyai: biya (subheading) → see biya

daiqing gurun: - 大清国: amba daiqing gurun i tulergi golo be dasara jurgan i bithe oros sanat yamun de unggihe sakini sere jalin. 《48・档》大清国理藩院咨文, 致俄罗斯萨纳特衙门, 为知会事.

damu: only, but - 但, 唯, 仅

dasan: rule, government, control - 政治,国治

de: the dative-locative particle;

donjiqi: have heard that …

doro: doctrine, precept, morality, Dao, way, rule, rite, ritual; gift - 道,道理

dulimbai gurun: China

eiten: all (in attributive position), every - 一切,凡

ele: (used after a participle) all; still more, especially - 越发,所有

elehun: content, calm, satisfied with one's lot, tolerant, content in adversity, at ease, relaxed, composed, unperturbed - 安逸,泰安

emu: one - 一

emuqi: first → see emu

erdemu: virtue, moral conduct; talent, skill; military art, martial skill - 德,才

ergi: direction, side; this side - 方,边,方面

erin: time, season; one of the two-hour divisions of the day - 时, 季节

ferkingge: experienced, knowledgeable, learned

fonjimbi: to ask - 问

fonjime: → see fonjimbi

funde: (postposition) in place of, instead of, for; (adverb) substituting, in someone else's place - 替代

gamafi: → see gamambi

gamambi: to take (to another place); to manage, to look after, to deal with, to execute (an order), to regulate, to dispatch; to punish, to discipline - 拿去,区处

genembi: to go, to leave - 去

geneme: → see genembi

getuken: clear, lucid, understandable; completely recovered (from an illness) - 明白, 利落, 干净

goidafi: → see goidambi

goidambi: to last for a long time, to endure; to be late, to delay, to take a long time - 久,永久

goidame: → see goidambi

gosin: pity, mercy, love - 仁,仁爱

gurun: country, tribe, people; ruling house, dynasty; country-side -  国,国家

gurun be dalire gung: 鎮國公; Prince of the Blood of the fifth degree, BH 20

gvnimbi: to think, to reflect, to consider, to intend - 想,思考 → see gvnin

gvnime: → see gvnimbi

gvnin: intention, thought, opinion, feeling, sense; mind, spirit; token (of one's feelings or intention) - 心意,想法

gvsin: thirty - 三十

hafu: penetrating, going through; thorough, comprehensive; enlightened, possessing understanding; (as a postposition) through - 通, 透彻, 明白

hajilambi: to love, to be fond of, to fall in love; to become intimate with, to make love; to fish with a net stretched across a stream

harangga: subordinate, subject to, belonging to, vassal to; (the one) in question, the said … , the appropriate …; one of the divisions of the Green Banner - 所属,部下

hashv ergi: - 左边, 左翼.

hukxembi: to carry on the head, to wear on the head; to pile earth around the roots of a young plant; to appreciate, to thank, to be thankful to; to swell; cf. hukxumbi - 顶, 感激, 培苗

hvsutulembi: to do with power, to use strength, to strain - 尽力

hvsutuleme: → see hvsutulembi

hvwangdi: Emperor - 皇帝

i: he, she; cf. ini, ini, ini; (the genitive particle); (the instrumental particle); an interjection used to get the attention of subordinates

iletulembi: to reveal, to expose, to make public; to appear, to become well known; to do in a clear manner - 显出, 表现, 出名, 出众 → see iletu

iletuleme: → see iletulembi

inenggi: day, daytime; date, point in time; a kind of sea fish resembling the bream - 日

iqe: new, fresh; the first ten days of the month; beginning, at the beginning, the first day of a lunar month; recently - 新,初

iqihiyambi: to arrange, to manage, to take care of; to put in order, to tidy up; to get oneself ready, to groom; to prepare a corpse for burial - 办理,料理,收拾

iqihiyame: iqi=hiya=me → see iqihiyambi

ishun: (postposition) toward, facing, opposite; next; forward; cf. ishunde - 相向之向

ishunde: mutually, to one another, in succession, one after another - 彼此,互相 → see ishun

isimbi: -ka, -pi; to reach, to arrive; to approach, to come up to; to be enough, to be sufficient: baitalara de isimbi 'to be sufficient for use'; (with de) to be as good as; to be about to (with the imperfect participle: jetere isika 'about to eat'); -ha; to pull up (grass), to pluck - 及, 至, 够; 拔

isinambi: to reach, to arrive (at that place); to go so far as to … - 到,到达 → see isimbi

jakvn: eight - 八

je: affirmative interjection: yes; foxtail millet (Setaria italica); grain in general - 嗻 | 小米

jiramin: thick; generous, kind - 厚, 程度深

jorgon: twelve - 十二

julesi: forward, toward the front, southward - 往前,往南

jurgan: line, column; righteousness, moral courage, devotedness, loyalty; ministry, board (an organ of government); meaning, significance, gist - 义, 行, 条; 部

kemun: measure, dimension, model, ruler, rule, regulation; a marker beyond which one is not allowed to step when competing in archery; a point beyond which one is not allowed to go - 尺度,限度,制度 

kemuni: often; still, yet - 还是,仍 ,常 → see kemun

kimqimbi: -ha; to examine, to check, to investigate, to look into carefully, to do carefully - 详察,考究

kimqime: → see kimqimbi

kooli: rule, norm, statute, codex, decree, law; custom, habit; document; method - 例,典,规矩

mergen: a very good hunter or fisherman, an intelligent or wise man; outstanding, wise, worthy, skilled, adept - 神射手, 智

mujilen: mind, intention, heart (in a figurative sense) - 心

ofi: a snare for catching pheasants; (perfect converb of ombi) because - 因为,由于,因为 … 所以,自 … 之后 → see ombi

ojoro: imperfect participle of ombi; → see ombi

ombi: imperfect participle -joro, imperative: -joro; to become, to change into; to be, to exist; to be proper, to be permissible - 为,可以

qang: the autumnal sacrifice; sacrificial wine

qohombi: to advance to regular status a person holding temporary office, to make a special selection from candidates for a vacancy; to do especially; cf. qohome - 拟正

qohome: especially, on purpose, exclusively; merely, only, directly - 专门,特意,主要 → see qohombi

qohotoi: special, exclusive, especially, exclusively - 特别,特意,专门

qoohai jurgan: 兵部; Board of War, BH 415

qoohai nashvn: important military matters

saikan sain: - 美善:ere jakvn hergen yargiyan i wang ni xaikan sain be akvmbume muterakv.《3・上》此八字实不能尽王之美善.

sain: good, well; auspicious, favorable - 吉,好,美

saixambi: to praise, to commend - 夸奖

sasa: together - 共同,一齐

sibkimbi: to ponder deeply, to look into thoroughly, to investigate, to make a thorough enquiry

sioi: foreword, preface (to a book); cf. xutuqin

sonjombi: to choose, to select; to select someone for an official post after he has passed the state examination - 挑选

sonjome: → see sonjombi

te: now, at present - 现在

tuqibufi: tuqi=bu=fi → see tuqibumbi

tuqibumbi: (causative of tuqimbi); to take out, to bring out, to remove (from inside something); to take a coffin to the place of burial; to recommend; to reveal, to discover; to appoint, to delegate, to send out (on a mission); to publish; to save, to rescue - 现出,派 • 陈述

tusa: profit, gain, benefit, advantage - 利益

tuwambi: to look, to look at; to observe, to examine, to oversee; to consult (the yarrow stalks), to divine; to visit; to treat in a certain way; (as an auxiliary) to try, to attempt - 看 • 监视 ,验 • 筮卜

tuwame: postposition with the accusative; in accordance with, depending on - 关于

tuwara: tuwambi (subheading) → see tuwambi

ulhiyen: gradual - 渐渐

unenggi: truly, really, honestly; true, honest, genuine; pious - 真诚,诚意,诚然

uyun: nine - 九

wesihun gurun: - 兴盛的朝代, 兴朝: julgeqi ebsi wesihun gurun de, urunakv sain mutere amban bihebi. 《49・碑》稽古兴朝必有贤良之臣.

xi: a measure equaling one hundred twenty catties; poem, verse; army; examination; scholar, official

xu genggiyen: cultured and enlightened

yabumbi: to go, to walk, to leave; to travel, to go about, to live (in a certain way); to act, to perform, to be put into effect; to serve at a post; to betroth - 行走,行事之行

yargiyan: true, real, genuine, factual; truth, reality - 真, 真是

yaya: every, each, any - 凡是,诸凡

yooni: complete, entire, all together, all - 全部


[1] Letter taken from an online module on Manchu by the National Palace Museum. Introduction on their website: " In 1905, the Qing Empire was on the verge of collapsing. In order to pacify the political turmoil at home, the Qing government plans to reform politics. In the name of creating China's first Constitution, five high-rank officers, Zaize 載澤, DAI Hongci 戴鴻慈, XU Shichang 徐世昌, Duangfang 端方 and Shaoying 紹英 were sent to Japan and the West to survey their constitutional politics. Upon hearing the news, WU Yue, a revolutionary, fearing that constitutional monarchism would kill off true democracy, decided to stop the change. He bomb attacked the five officers in Zhengyangmen East Railway Station and he was killed. The "Diplomatic Credential Presented to the Great British Empire" and "Diplomatic Credential Presented to the Great French Republic", collected by the National Palace Museum, were Diplomatic Credentials prepared for these diplomatic missions.Because of Wu's opposition, they remained in Forbidden City and then went to Taiwan.They witnessed the decline of constitutional monarchism and the rise of democracy in China." (source).

[2] On the Taipei national Palace Museum website we read the following translation of the Chinese letter: "On behalf of the Emperor of the Great Qing Empire, greetings to the King of the Great British Empire. China has been a friend of your country for many years. The friendship between two countries is increasing. We heard that you have a long civilization, and your political system is advanced. Your political system is almost perfect. As the Emperor of China, I want to learn from you to revitalize my country. I want to be open and friendly to the whole world and learn from other countries. As a result, allow me to send Zaize (zhenguo gong nobility) , XU Shichang (Vice Minister of Military Affairs) and Shaoying (Ministry of Commerce) to your country to study your politics. They are all highly qualified loyal officers who are well versed in world affairs. I have long been relied on them. Please allow me to use this letter to express my good will to your country. I urge Your Majesty may treat them as welcomed guests and let them study your great legal and political systems to the details in order to be adopted by my country. As a result, we shall be grateful to Your Majesty's kindness to us. The 31st Year, 8th Month and 9th Day of Guangxu Reign of Great Qing Empire" source

[3] The same letter was prepared to be send of to France. (source)